The British Empire was the most extensive empire in world history. It was a product of the European Age of Discovery in the late 15th century.
Individual national and expansion histories referred to each other in varying degrees at different times but often also reinforced each other. Transfer processes within Europe and in the colonies show that not only genuine colonial powers such as Spain and England, but also "latecomers" such as Germany participated in the historical process of colonial expansion with which Europe decisively shaped world history.
In turn, this process also clearly shaped Europe itself. Introduction In world history, no continent has possessed so many different forms of colonies and none has so incomparably defined access to the world by means of a civilising mission as a secular programme as did modern Europe.
A similar claim was never staked out in this form by a world empire of Antiquity or a non-European colonial power in the modern period, such as Japan or the USA.
The extraordinary continuity of Chinese colonialism or that of the Aztecs in Central America before the Spaniards arrived is indeed structurally comparable to modern European expansion. But similar to the Phoenician and the Roman empires, the phenomenon of expansion usually ended with colonisation and not in colonial development.
The imperial expansion since about was not a European invention but its chronological and spatial dimension was as unique as the variety of colonial methods of rule.
It is characteristic that the impetus for colonialism was often derived as an answer to European history itself. This includes capitalist striving for profit, the colonies as valves for overpopulation, the spirit of exploration, scientific interest, and religious and ideological impulses up to Social-Darwinistic and racist motives.
Colonialist urges of this type do not explain the expansionistic economic, military and other forces in the periphery that compelled the governments of the mother countries into a defensive pressing forward. What is now understood as globalisation has a critical background in the world historical involvement of the non-European sphere from the Early Modern Period up and into the period of decolonisation.
No European country remained exempt — all directly or indirectly participated in the colonial division of the world. The Treaty of Tordesillas put global power thinking into words that perceived of colonial possessions as a political, economic and cultural right, last not least even as an obligation to a civilizing mission that was only definitively shaken with the independence of India in This turns the simultaneity and multitude of European colonialisms and imperialisms into a border-bridging experience.
Few transnational specifics of European history illustrate the diversity of a European consciousness this clearly.
But what was colonialism? If one looks back at the essential elements in the thought of the Spanish world empire since the 16th century, it was similar to that of the English and Portuguese up to the most recent time because of the often claimed idea that the European nations created their empires themselves without the participation of others.
Spain's power was only definitively broken with the Treaty of Paris in 2which ended the Seven Years' War and solidified British colonial supremacy. It also revealed the entanglement between Europe and the American continent because the seed had been sown for the independence struggle of the United States as well as the revolutions in Central and South America between and After human and citizens rights had been fought for during the French Revolution, the first Black republic in world history arose in from a slave revolt in Haiti.
Colonialism was by no means a one-dimensional affair with a simply European orientation and European discoverers such as Columbus and Vasco da Gama — [ ]who succeeded in making the first East India voyage in less than a decade after Instead, colonialism should be understood as a dynamic interaction in the context of which the colonial empires and the individual colonies massively influenced the historical development of their European mother countries.
This even extended to the programmes of rulers' titles. Subsequent to da Gama successfully establishing trade relations with the Southwest Indian spice port of Calicutking Manuel I — not only styled himself king of Portugal, but also lord of ArabiaPersia and India. Like the Portuguese world empire, the Spanish arrived in all of Europe because European and non-European immigrants participated as much as did the natives in the colonies.
The Spanish empire can hardly be imagined without Belgians, Italians and Chinese, while commerce and administration in the Portuguese empire was shaped to a significant degree by Germans, Flemings, Moslems and Jews. It has existed in almost all periods of world history in different degrees of expression.
Already inthe Brazilian sociologist Gilberto Freyre stated the thesis that the Portuguese as the oldest European colonial nation had a special gift for expansion in his controversial book Casa-grande e Senzala The Masters and the Slaves.History Colonialism and the 19th Century.
it might take a long time to load: sorry! STUDY. PLAY. This war, as well as in general the British-Russian rivalry for Central Asia, was called the "great game" by Rudyard Kipling.
chieftain Setawayo. During the 19th century, the . The 19th century marked the full flower of the British Empire.
Administration and policy changed during the century from the haphazard arrangements of the 17th and 18th centuries to the sophisticated system characteristic of Joseph Chamberlain ’s tenure (–) in the Colonial Office.
British Empire: British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies—colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government.
Learn more about the British Empire in this article. During the 19th century, Britain's population increased at a dramatic rate, both nations were opposed to European colonialism. In practice, however, Settlers in Ireland from Great Britain have left their mark in the form of divided nationalist and unionist communities in Northern Ireland.
By the midth century, however, were vocal in opposing conscription into the armed services to fight on behalf of Britain during World War I, The empire that grew from Greek conquest, particularly by Alexander the Great, spurred the . Colonialism and Great Britain Essay 1.
A MAJOR cause of imperialism AND SOCIAL DARWINISM Colonialism and imperialism were practiced by the countries of Europe from the 15th to the 20th century and by America during the 19th and 20th centuries.