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Among the most popular variations of the social constructionist theories is the gender role theory, considered by Alsop, Fitzsimons and Lennon as an early form of social constructionism.
Social constructionismbriefly, is the concept that there are many things that people "know" or take to be "reality" that are at least partially, if not completely, socially situated. Examples include money, tenurecitizenshipdecorations for bravery, and the presidency of the United States.
Social constructionism is a theory of knowledge. Social constructionism focuses on how meaning is created. Emerging from the criticism of objectivitysocial constructionism challenges concepts of knowledge put forward by positivismwhich postulates the externality of reality and that empirically-proved truths are mind-independent.
Knowledge is a social product. Power and hierarchy underlie social construction. This focus results in showing how individuals differ in status, entitlement, efficacy, self-respect and other traits based on the kind of interactions one is involved in and subjected to.
Language is at the core of knowledge. Language is considered the building block of culture; it conveys meaning and creates the system of knowledge humans participate in. Ultimately, language has a huge influence on how humans perceive reality and, as a result, is the creator of this reality.
Social construction is a dynamic process. Social constructionists emphasize the complexity of how knowledge is created in social interactions. Knowledge and meanings are not stable or constant; they are co-constructed in interactions with others, negotiated, modified and shifted.
People are active in their perception, understanding and sharing of knowledge acquired from their social milieu. It is prudent therefore to consider this process when explaining the social construction of knowledge, including knowledge concerning gender.
The individual and society are indissoluble. Social constructionists question the Western idea of an autonomous individual who can draw a clear line between the self and the society. According to social constructionism, individuals can create meaning only in relation to what they are exposed to in their environment.
Paradoxically, the same individuals co-create the meanings that are available in this environment. They also argue that both the materialist and discursive theories of social construction of gender can be either essentialist or non-essentialist.
This means that some of these theories assume a clear biological division between women and men when considering the social creation of masculinity and femininity, while other contest the assumption of the biological division between the sexes as independent of social construction.
Gender Gender, according to West and Zimmerman, is not a personal trait; it is "an emergent feature of social situations: Contemporary constructionist perspective, as proposed by Fenstermaker and West, proposes treating gender as an activity "doing" of utilizing normative prescriptions and beliefs about sex categories based on situational variables.
These "gender activities" constitute our belonging to a sex as based on the socially accepted dichotomy of "women" and "men". It is noted, however, that these activities are not always perceived by the audience as being either "masculine" or "feminine", they are at constant risk of being assessed as more or less "womanly" or "manly"; ultimately, any behavior may be judged based upon its "manly" or "womanly" nature.
This in turn points to the situational nature of gender rather than its inherent, essentialist and individual nature. Gender roles[ edit ] Gender roles are often centred around the conceptions of femininity or masculinity.
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. About us. John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent, family-owned academic publisher headquartered in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. More. Page Last Edited. 31/08/ Please Note. This document contains information on gender differences in GCE [O Level] Examination results which do not appear elsewhere on my website and which may be of interest to some readers.
In our society today, women are socialized as being the caretakers of the house, who nurture the children, cook and clean. With men, they "should" be the workhorse, the provider, protector, a leader, and a teacher to his family.Judith Butler FBA (born February 24, ) is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer and literary theory.
Since , she has taught at the University of California, Berkeley, where she is now Maxine Elliot Professor in the Department of .
To define gender stratification even better, one could imply from the above that, it is a set of rights, obligations, expectations, and privileges that determines men's and women's behavior within the society.
Discover the best Demography Studies in Best Sellers. Find the top most popular items in Amazon Books Best Sellers. Question: Why does gender stratification exist? Introduction: Throughout history, women have been regarded as of lesser value than men particularly in the public sphere.
This is the result of gender stratification. Gender stratification refers to the issue of sexism, “or the belief that one sex is superior to the other” (Carl et al., , p. 78). About us. John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent, family-owned academic publisher headquartered in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
More. Extracts from this document Introduction. Sociology Essay for Nisrine Mansour Compare and Contrast Marx and Weber's view on Stratification The grouping of people together according to their status within society in relation to the groups they belong to is as old as society itself.