Introduction The main topic of the article is the Western metaphilosophy of the last hundred years or so. But that topic is broached via a sketch of some earlier Western metaphilosophies. Once that sketch is in hand, the article defines the notion of metaphilosophy and distinguishes between explicit and implicit metaphilosophy.
Marx says that surplus value is "merely a congealed quantity of surplus labor-time… nothing but objectified surplus labor.
One part of the working day is the time necessary in order to produce the value of the workers labor power. The second part of the working day is surplus labor time, which produces no value for the laborer, but produces value for the capitalist.
The rate of surplus value is a ratio of surplus labor time s to necessary labor time v. Capitalists often maximize profits by manipulating the rate of surplus value, which can be done through the increase of surplus labor time.
This method is referred to as the production of absolute surplus value.
In this case capitalists merely increase the length of the working day. Though there are physical restrictions to the working day, such as general human needs, the working day is by no means fixed.
This allows for great flexibility in the number of hours worked per day. This flexibility in working hours leads to a class struggle between capitalist and worker. Similarly, the worker demands the full value of his own commodity.
The worker needs to be able to renew his labor power so that it can be sold again anew. The capitalist sees working fewer hours as theft from capital, and the worker see working too many hours as theft from laborers. This class struggle can be seen throughout history, and eventually laws such as Factory Acts were put in place to limit the length of a working day and child labour.
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This forced capitalists to find a new way in which to exploit workers. The Concept of Relative Surplus-Value, Division of Labour and Manufacture, and Machinery and Modern Industry. In Chapter 12, Marx explains a decrease in the An analysis of locke versus marx of labour power by increasing production.
Chapters 13—15 examine ways in which the productivity of this labour is increased. Remember, the value of labour-power is "the labour-time necessary to produce labour-power.
Marx calls this decrease in necessary labour and increase in surplus value as relative surplus-value whereas when there is an actual lengthening in the working day and surplus value is produced, this is called absolute surplus-value.
For this to happen, the productivity of labour must increase. The perpetual drive of capital, according to Marx, is to increase the productivity of labor, leading to a decrease in the value of commodities. In this, the value of the workers means of subsistence decreases, resulting in a decrease in the value of his labour power.
Co-operation[ edit ] According to Marx, co-operation happens "when numerous workers work together side by side in accordance with a plan, whether in the same process, or in different but connected processes.
Marx says, "If the labour process is complicated, then the sheer number of the co-operators permits the apportionment of various operations to different hands, and consequently their simultaneous performance.
The time necessary for the completion of the whole work is thereby shortened. While this is the case, Marx is quick to note that the collective powers of co-operation are not created by Capital.
This, according to Marx, is a disguise or a fetish. Marx cites the building of the pyramidswhich occurred prior to the organization of a capitalist mode of production. The Division of Labour and Manufacture[ edit ] Section 1. The Dual Origin of Manufacture In this section 1, The Dual Origin of Manufacture, Marx examines manufacture as a method of production involving specialized workers, or craftsmen, working on their own detailed task.
Marx cites the assembly of a carriage as an example of the first way this is brought about. In this, multiple skilled workers are brought together to produce specialized parts once unique to their craft, contributing to the overall production of the commodity.
Another way this manufacture arises is by splitting up a single handicraft into multiple specialized areas, further introducing a division of labour.
The Specialized Worker and his Tools In this section, Marx argues that a worker who performs only one task throughout his life will perform his job at a faster and more productive rate, forcing capital to favor the specialized worker to the traditional craftsman. The Two Fundamental Forms of Manufacture- Heterogeneous and Organic In this section, Marx argues that a division of labour within production produces a hierarchy of labor, skilled and unskilled, and also a variation in wages.
Yet according to Marx, this division within the labour process reduces a workers skills collectively, which devalues their labour power. The Division of Labour in Manufacture and the Division of Labour in Society In this section, Marx states that division of labour has existed in society long before the establishment of a capitalist mode of production.
Marx argues that despite its existence prior to capital, division of labor is unique under capital because its goal is to increase the rate and mass of surplus value, not create a "combined product of specialized labours. The Capitalist Character of Division In this section, Marx discusses an increased class struggle that is brought about by capital, or in this case in the division of labour.
By creating such a division, it disguises the efforts and work of such a division as that of the capitalist. Division of labour under capitalism, according to Marx, is a subdivision of a workers potential and sets limitations on his mental and physical capacity, making him reliant upon the capitalist to exercise his specialized skill.Contemporary Metaphilosophy.
What is philosophy? What is philosophy for? How should philosophy be done? These are metaphilosophical questions, metaphilosophy being the study of the nature of philosophy.
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