Indeed, its whole point would seem to be to prepare the way for these other forms, as philosophers in the second phase of analytic philosophy came to argue see The Cambridge School of Analysis. One such form is traditional decompositional analysis—understood, more specifically, as resolving a whole into its parts e. I gloss over here the controversial issue as to how Frege understands functions, arguments and judgeable contents at this particular time. It was this that allowed him to develop quantificational theory, enabling him to analyze complex mathematical statements.
References and Further Reading 1. Tantra and Kashmiri Shaivism While tantrism is a complex and controversial subject, one of its most definitive characteristics for contemporary classifications—if not its most definitive one—is the pursuit of power. Tantric traditions are thus those that aim at increasing the power of the practitioner.
The theological designation for the essence of such power is Shakti the female counterpart to the male divine principle, whose essence is power. In his seminal essay, "Purity and Power among the Brahmans of Kashmir," the Oxford historian Alexis Sanderson elucidates that the tantric pursuit of such power transgresses orthodox, mainstream Hindu norms that delimit human agency for the sake of symbolic and ritual purity shuddhi Sanderson Violating prescriptions regarding caste, sexuality, diet and death, many of the tantric rites were originally performed in cremation grounds.
Shiva is the Shaktiman the "possessor of Shakti" encompassing her within his androgynous nature as his integral power and consort.
According to the predominant monistic Shaiva myth, Shiva out of a kind of play divides himself from Shakti and then in sexual union emanates and controls the universe through her.
Basic Ritual Pattern of Kashmiri Shaivism The basic pattern of spiritual practice, which also reflects the appropriation of Goddess worship Shaktism by Shaivism is the approach to Shiva through Shakti.
The adept pursues the realization of identity with the omnipotent Shiva by assuming his mythic agency in emanating and controlling the universe through Shakti. Thus in the sexual ritual a man realizes himself as the possessor of Shakti within his partner.
In more frequent internalized "theosophical" contemplations one realizes oneself as the possessor of Shakti in all her immanent modalities with the aid of circular diagrams of cosmogenesis mandalas and mantras. Domestication of Kashmiri Shaiva Thought Scholars identify some of the preconditions for the eventual development of monistic Shaiva philosophical discourse in the trend of medieval tantric movements to "domesticize" themselves by assimilating to upper-caste Hindu norms.
Radical practices were toned down, concealed under the guise of propriety, or interpreted as metaphors of internal contemplations. This creation of what may be described as a religious mission to the educated elites also led to the increasing consolidation of the various streams of monistic Shaivism.
These two works and their commentaries form the core texts of the "Spanda system" of monistic Shaivism, known for its interpretation of Shakti as spanda, "cosmic pulsation.
See the summary of themes of the Shivadrishti below. The latter text has been accessible to contemporary scholars only in fragments. Abhinavagupta is also renowned for his works on Sanskrit poetics—in which he interpreted aesthetic experience as homologous to, and practically approaching the monistic Shaiva soteriological realization.
As further diffused through these and subsequent works, Utpaladeva's and Abhinavagupta's philosophical thought came to have a large influence on tantric and devotional bhakti traditions throughout South Asia.
In establishing the Shaiva doctrine he refutes a number of alternative views on ultimate reality, the self, God and the metaphysical status of the world. According to Bhartrihari, the ultimate reality is the Word Absolute shabdabrahman —a super-linguistic plenum, which fragments and emanates into the multiplicity of forms of expressive speech and referents of that speech.
He argues that there is ultimately no difference between Shakti and Shiva, who is the possessor of Shakti. He supports this contention with the analogy of the inseparability of heat from fire, which is the possessor of heat. Nevertheless, he asserts that it is more proper to refer to the ultimate reality as Shiva rather than Shakti.
According to the scholastic logic, the reason identifies a quality in the inferential subject "I" known to be invariably concomitant with the predicate, "Shiva. Contemporary interpreters have characterized the philosophy of Buddhist logic as a species of phenomenalism akin to that of David Hume.
According to this school, the foundation of knowledge is a series of momentary and discrete perceptual data svalakshana. In debates over several centuries, the Buddhist logicians had propounded arguments attacking many concepts that seemed commonsensical and were religiously significant to the various orthodox Hindu philosophical schools—such as ideas of external objects, ordinary and ritual action, an enduring Self, God, and revelation.
They thereby appropriate the Grammarian's explanation of creation as linguistic in nature. Thus the Kashmiri Shaiva philosophers ascribe to Speech a primordial status, denied by the Buddhist logicians.
This circularity of conclusion and reason is a consequence of the Kashmiri Shaiva monism. From the intratraditional perspective, there is no fact that can be adduced in support of another separate fact, as everything is always the same in essential nature.
From the intertraditional perspective of philosophical debate, however, the circularity is not necessarily destructive. The Shaiva technical studies of various topics of epistemology and ontology in effect provide further ostensible justification for this apparent circularity.An Analysis Of Taoism And Its Theories Philosophy Essay.
Print Reference to find the way. Tao is the ultimate reality, a presence that existed before the universe was formed and which continues to guide the world and everything in it. Tao is sometimes identified as the Mother, or the source of all things.
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