But the line is drawn at speech that causes harm to others, and not everyone agrees where that line is. While the United States is very liberal about the type of expression it allows in its media, other countries have different, sometimes very specific concerns. There are a number of different ways a film can be banned, from importation restrictions to refused certifications by regulatory boards, all the way up to the rare instances when the screening or possession of a movie becomes a criminal act.
Definition[ edit ] A cult film is any film that has a cult followingalthough the term is not easily defined and can be applied to a wide variety of films.
Several people defined cult films primarily in terms of their opposition to mainstream films and conformism, explicitly requiring a transgressive element, though others disputed the transgressive potential, given the demographic appeal to conventional moviegoers and mainstreaming of cult films.
Jeffrey Andrew Weinstock instead called them mainstream films with transgressive elements. Most definitions also required a strong community aspect, such as obsessed fans or ritualistic behavior.
Citing misuse of the term, Mikel J. Koven took a self-described hard-line stance that rejected definitions that use any other criteria.
Matt Hills instead stressed the need for an open-ended definition rooted in structurationwhere the film and the audience reaction are interrelated and neither is prioritized.
Ernest Mathijs focused on the accidental nature of cult followings, arguing that cult film fans consider themselves too savvy to be marketed to, while Jonathan Rosenbaum rejected the continued existence of cult films and called the term a marketing buzzword. Mathijs suggests that cult films help to understand ambiguity and incompleteness in life given the difficulty in even defining the term.
That cult films can have opposing qualities — such as good and bad, failure and success, innovative and retro — helps to illustrate that art is subjective and never self-evident.
However, they reject cult films as having a single unifying feature; instead, they state that cult films are united in their "subcultural ideology" and opposition to mainstream tastes, itself a vague and undefinable term. Cult followings themselves can range from adoration to contempt, and they have little in common except for their celebration of nonconformity — even the bad films ridiculed by fans are artistically nonconformist, albeit unintentionally.
At the same time, they state that bourgeois, masculine tastes are frequently reinforced, which makes cult films more of an internal conflict within the bourgeoisie, rather than a rebellion against it.
This results in an anti-academic bias despite the use of formal methodologies, such as defamiliarization. This nonconformity is eventually co-opted by the dominant forces, such as Hollywood, and marketed to the mainstream. Due to their rejection of mainstream appeal, Mendik says cult films can be more creative and political; times of relative political instability produce more interesting films.
Hartand Charlie Chaplinwhich he described as "a dissent from the popular ritual". Stoker's widow sued the production company and drove it to bankruptcy. All known copies of the film were destroyed, and Nosferatu become an early cult film, kept alive by a cult following that circulated illegal bootlegs.
The Night of the Hunter was a cult film for years, quoted often and championed by fans, before it was reassessed as an important and influential classic. Although critics Pauline Kael and Arthur Knight argued against arbitrary divisions into high and low cultureAmerican films settled into rigid genres; European art films continued to push the boundaries of simple definitions, and these exploitative art films and artistic exploitation films would go on to influence American cult films.
These underground film festivals led to the creation of midnight movieswhich attracted cult followings. Eventually, the rise of home video would marginalize midnight movies once again, after which many directors joined the burgeoning independent film scene or went back underground.
Joanne Hollows states that they were seen as turning cult films mainstream — in effect, feminizing them by opening them to distracted, passive audiences. Hollywood films, due to their nature, are more likely to attract this kind of attention, which leads to a mainstreaming effect of cult culture.
With major studios behind them, even financially unsuccessful films can be re-released multiple times, which plays into a trend to capture audiences through repetitious reissues. The constant use of profanity and drugs in otherwise mainstream, Hollywood films, such as The Big Lebowski, can alienate critics and audiences yet lead to a large cult following among more open-minded demographics not often associated with cult films, such as Wall Street bankers and professional soldiers.
Thus, even comparatively mainstream films can satisfy the traditional demands of a cult film, perceived by fans as transgressive, niche, and uncommercial. I wanted to make box-office hits. The early cult horror films of Peter Jackson were so strongly associated with his homeland that they affected the international reputation of New Zealand and its cinema.
As more artistic films emerged, New Zealand was perceived as a legitimate competitor to Hollywood, which mirrored Jackson's career trajectory. Heavenly Creatures acquired its own cult following, became a part of New Zealand's national identity, and paved the way for big-budget, Hollywood-style epics, such as Jackson's Lord of the Rings trilogy.
Fans will often watch films obsessively, an activity that is viewed by the mainstream as wasting time yet can be seen as resisting the commodification of leisure time. They may also watch films idiosyncratically: Cult films themselves subvert traditional views of time — time travel, non-linear narratives, and ambiguous establishments of time are all popular.
Mathijs also identifies specific cult film viewing habits, such as viewing horror films on Halloween, sentimental melodrama on Christmas, and romantic films on Valentine's Day. These films are often viewed as marathons where fans can gorge themselves on their favorites.
These films, ritually watched every season, give a sense of community and shared nostalgia to viewers. New films often have trouble making inroads against the institutions of It's A Wonderful Life and Miracle on 34th Street These films provide mild criticism of consumerism while encouraging family values.
Horror films have appropriated the holiday, and many horror films debut on Halloween. Mathijs criticizes the over-cultified, commercialized nature of Halloween and horror films, which feed into each other so much that Halloween has turned into an image or product with no real community.The Rocky Horror Picture Show is zany, wild, unpredictable; that's what makes it a cult classic.
Tim Curry gives a performance so abnormal and noticeable that you can't help but love his character, and the music and dance numbers are fresh and bursting with energy.
A chronicle of a woman's rape and her brutal revenge, I Spit On Your Grave is a violent slice of grimy horror that was met with fierce opposition upon its release in The critics who disliked.
(You would think that The Rocky Horror Picture Show, of all musicals, would be pro-climax.) The director, Kenny Ortega, known for the High School Musical trilogy, seems to think that by mixing overbusy sequences with others that have almost no content or momentum he can achieve a nice average.
Oct 19, · Fox's The Rocky Horror Picture Show: Let’s Do the Time Warp Again reimagines the Cult classic film for a new generation.
Laverne Cox takes over for Tim Curry as the mad scientist, Frank-N-Furter in the updated television musical. We-e-e-elcome to the Late Night Double Feature Picture Show! This Cult-Classic mixes elements of "Bride of Frankenstein" with "Forbidden Planet", "The Day The Earth Stood Still" and other classic Horror .
A cult film or cult movie, also commonly referred to as a cult classic, is a film that has acquired a cult leslutinsduphoenix.com films are known for their dedicated, passionate fanbase, an elaborate subculture that engage in repeated viewings, quoting dialogue, and audience leslutinsduphoenix.comive definitions allow for major studio productions, especially box office bombs, while exclusive definitions.