When Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, seized the throne on August 22,leaving the Yorkist Richard III dead upon the field of battle, few Englishmen would have predicted that years of Tudor rule had begun.
He declared himself king "by right of conquest" retroactively from 21 Augustthe day before Bosworth Field. He took great care not to address the baronage, or summon Parliament, until after his coronation, which took place in Westminster Abbey on 30 October Henry then honoured his pledge of December to marry Elizabeth of York.
The marriage unified the warring houses and gave his children a strong claim to the throne. The unification of the houses of York and Lancaster by this marriage is symbolised by the heraldic emblem of the Tudor rosea combination of the white rose of York and the red rose of Lancaster.
It also ended future discussion as to whether the descendants of the fourth son of Edward III, Edmund, Duke of Yorkthrough marriage to Philippa, heiress of the second son, Lionel, Duke of Clarencehad a superior or inferior claim to those of the third son John of Gauntwho had held the throne for three generations.
Amateur historians Bertram Fields and Sir Clements Markham have claimed that he may have been involved in the murder of the Princes in the Tower, as the repeal of Titulus Regius gave the Princes a stronger claim to the throne than his own.
Alison Weirhowever, points out that the Rennes ceremony, two years earlier, was possible only if Henry and his supporters were certain that the Princes were already dead.
While he was still in Leicester, after the battle of Bosworth Field, Henry was already taking precautions to prevent any rebellions against his reign. However, Henry was threatened by several active rebellions over the next few years.
The first was the rebellion of the Stafford brothers and Viscount Lovell ofwhich collapsed without fighting. The rebellion began in Irelandwhere the traditionally Yorkist nobility, headed by the powerful Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildareproclaimed Simnel King and provided troops for his invasion of England.
The rebellion was defeated and Lincoln killed at the Battle of Stoke. Henry showed remarkable clemency to the surviving rebels: In Warbeck landed in Cornwall with a few thousand troops, but was soon captured and executed. Henry married Elizabeth of York with the hope of uniting the Yorkist and Lancastrian sides of the Plantagenet dynastic disputes, and he was largely successful.
However, such a level of paranoia persisted that anyone John de la Pole, Earl of Richmond,  for example with blood ties to the Plantagenets was suspected of coveting the throne.
Stephens, "affords some illustrations of the avaricious and parsimonious character of the king". It seems that the king was skillful at extracting money from his subjects on many pretexts, including that of war with France or war with Scotland.
Henry VII introduced stability to the financial administration of England by keeping the same financial advisors throughout his reign. For instance, other than the first few months of the reign, Lord Dynham and Thomas Howard, earl of Surrey were the only two office holders in the position of Lord High Treasurer of England throughout his reign.
Those nobles who spent little must have saved much and, thus, they could afford the increased taxes; on the other hand, those nobles who spent much obviously had the means to pay the increased taxes.
Up to a point, he succeeded. He was not a military man and had no interest in trying to regain French territories lost during the reigns of his predecessors; he was therefore ready to conclude a treaty with France at Etaples that brought money into the coffers of England, and ensured the French would not support pretenders to the English throne, such as Perkin Warbeck.
However, this treaty came at a slight price, as Henry mounted a minor invasion of Brittany in November Henry decided to keep Brittany out of French hands, signed an alliance with Spain to that end, and sent 6, troops to France.
However, as France was becoming more concerned with the Italian Wars, the French were happy to agree to the Treaty of Etaples. Henry VII centrewith his advisors Sir Richard Empson and Sir Edmund Dudley Henry had been under the financial and physical protection of the French throne or its vassals for most of his life, prior to his ascending the throne of England.
Henry VII was one of the first European monarchs to recognise the importance of the newly united Spanish kingdom and concluded the Treaty of Medina del Campoby which his son, Arthur Tudorwas married to Catherine of Aragon. Trade agreements Henry VII was much enriched by trading alumwhich was used in the wool and cloth trades for use as a chemical dye fixative when dyeing fabrics.
With the English economy heavily invested in wool production, Henry VII became involved in the alum trade in With the assistance of the Italian merchant-banker, Lodovico della Fava and the Italian banker, Girolamo Frescobaldi, Henry VII became deeply involved in the trade by licensing ships, obtaining alum from the Ottoman Empireand selling it to the Low Countries and in England.
The Merchant Adventurersthe company which enjoyed the monopoly of the Flemish wool trade, relocated from Antwerp to Calais. At the same time, Flemish merchants were ejected from England. The stand-off eventually paid off for Henry.Henry was the second son of Henry VII, first of the Tudor line, and Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV, first king of the short-lived line of York.
When his elder brother, Arthur, died in , Henry became the heir to the throne; of all the Tudor monarchs, he alone spent his childhood in calm. Henry VII: Henry VII, king of England (–), who succeeded in ending the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York and founded the Tudor dynasty.
Henry, son of Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond, and Margaret Beaufort, was born nearly three months after his father’s death. Henry VIII (28 June – 28 January ) was the King of England from until his death.
He is perhaps one of England's most famous monarchs because he and Thomas Cromwell the Archbishop of Canterbury split from the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope, and he married six times..
Henry was born at Greenwich Palace on 28 June , as the second son of Henry VII of England and . The story of England's King Henry VIII and his six wives.
Books, DVDs, and links about Henry VIII and his queens. Henry VII (Welsh: Harri Tudur; 28 January – 21 April ) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August to his death on 21 April He was the first monarch of the House of Tudor..
Henry attained the throne when his forces defeated King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses. Henry VIII, king of England, was famously married six times and played a critical role in the English Reformation, turning his country into a Protestant nation.
Henry Tudor (June 28, to.